刘鹏、李海林 | 中国党政组织关系的具体形态和生成逻辑
作者:刘鹏、李海林

党政关系是党和国家机构改革和中国国家治理体系的核心,但落实到具体的党政组织结构上,现有研究呈现出宏观分合形态和具体组织形式的脱节,以及缺乏对不同组织形式内在逻辑的探讨。本文设定了衡量党政组织关系分合程度的具体标准,以“分设-合一”维度依次分析了党政组织关系的五种不同形态:党委领导下的党政分设、统领协调、归口领导、合署办公、合并设立,总结了其概念、特征、演进和分布;基于这一维度,分析了影响党政关系分合的四种影响因素,认为党的领导越趋向全面系统化、党政机构协调成本降低空间越大、政府机构业务综合性战略性越强、工作政治性越强而导致党政责任边际模糊,则党政组织越倾向合一,同时在不同自主性强度的改革中,这种分合关系会在政府纵向层级间呈现差异化特征;最后提出了对未来我国党政关系分合模式的优化建议。查看详情>>

张友浪、李文钊 | How Does Homeownership Shape Public Service Coproduction? Evidence from a Public Complaint System in Beijing, China.
作者:张友浪、李文钊

Homeownership has been widely regarded as a critical determinant of public participation in social science research. However, the role of homeownership in public service coproduction has been under-researched. This study advances a theory of public service coproduction that accounts for the effect of homeownership and its underlying mechanisms by theorizing that homeownership increases coproduction participation by directly motivating individuals to protect their financial investments and indirectly improving their knowledge about government. Original data from a random telephone survey of 2,167 residents conducted in August 2022 in Beijing, China were used to test the hypotheses, and a series of analytical tools (e.g., weighted models, matching, and sensitivity analysis) were used to validate the theorized effects and mechanisms. Results consistently show that homeowners are more likely to report public service complaints to the government than nonowners. These findings have important implications for future theoretical research and practical efforts to promote public service coproduction.查看详情>>

严金明、冯思远、夏方舟 | 国土空间治理体系和治理能力现代化的思考
作者:严金明、冯思远、夏方舟

国土空间治理是国家治理体系和治理能力现代化建设的重要组成部分,如何全面提升国土空间治理体系和治理能力现代化水平是当前理论和实践面临的重大议题。本文以“制度分析与发展”框架为基础构建了治理现代化理论框架,探讨了国土空间治理体系和治理能力现代化的核心内涵。研究提出,国土空间治理体系是以政府、市场、社会治理主体形成的一整套紧密相连、相互协调的国土空间开发利用保护相关的体制机制、法律法规安排,其现代化内涵即要建立符合制度化、法治化、高效化、科学化、民主化等现代化准则要求的“三元四体系”;国土空间治理能力是多元主体基于治理体系、运用相关治理工具开展国土空间治理各方面事务的能力,其现代化内涵是治理主体按照系统化、创新化、标准化、精细化和持续化等现代化准则的要求,不断推进“三元九能力”提升和重构的过程。查看详情>>

龚芳颖 等 | Spatio-temporal modeling of satellite-observed CO2 columns in China using deep learning
作者:龚芳颖 等

Satellite measurements of the column-averaged dry air mole fraction of atmospheric carbon dioxide (XCO2) play a crucial role in monitoring CO2 emissions and sinks. However, the current limitations of satellite observations, including sparse sampling, narrow swath coverage, and data gaps caused by factors like clouds, significantly hinder their ability to accurately capture local-scale CO2 sources and sinks. This study introduces an innovative data-driven approach based on deep learning, which takes into consideration both spatial and temporal variations, to map XCO2 using observations from multiple satellites. By leveraging advanced deep learning techniques like conventional neural network (CNN), long short-term memory network (LSTM), channel-spatial attention, and artificial neural network (ANN) in the model training, this approach not only incorporates spatiotemporal variations of XCO2 but also integrates information from related terrestrial, anthropogenic, and meteorological variables. The results demonstrate a notable improvement in the predictive capability of the approach. An important advancement over previous studies is that this approach breaks away from the conventional practice of using model-generated XCO2 simulations for both training and validation. Monthly deep-learning XCO2 (DL-XCO2) of China from 2014 to 2022 was generated with a spatial resolution of 0.25° based on satellite retrievals from GOSAT and OCO-2/3. Cross-validation results show an average prediction bias of −0.16 ppm. Additionally, DL-XCO2 exhibits high precision when compared to two TCCON stations, with errors of 0.93 and 1.29 ppm in Hefei and Xianghe, respectively. Ultimately, the DL-XCO2 data effectively capture urban CO2 variations, showcasing the potential in accurately characterizing fine-scale CO2 sources and sinks.查看详情>>

景日泽:让群众在“家门口”好就医(新论)
来源:人民日报 2024年5月6日

党的二十大报告提出:“提高基层防病治病和健康管理能力。”基层医疗卫生机构是我国医疗卫生服务体系的重要组成部分,在就近满足群众看病就医需求和维护群众身体健康方面发挥着不可替代的作用。推动优质医疗卫生服务向社区、家庭延伸,促进基层防病治病和健康管理能力提升,是推进健康中国建设的必然要求。 从优化医疗卫生资源的角度来看,加强县域医共体建设,从单个机构的发展转向更加注重医共体内成员单位的协同联动发展,有助于加快提升基层医疗卫生服务能力。县域医共体可实现对县级医疗机构和基层乡镇卫生院、村卫生室的纵向整合,形成责任、管理、服务、利益共同体,带动县域医疗能力整体提升。2021年,四川省泸县被确定为全国基层卫生健康综合试验区,当地结合区位特点和群众就医习惯,组建3个医共体,目前已经形成10分钟村级、20分钟镇级、30分钟县级医疗服务圈。实践表明,打造县域医共体,能够推动形成特色鲜明、专业互补、错位发展、有序竞争的发展格局。查看详情>>

唐杰:推进生态环境精准化高水平治理
来源:人民日报海外版 2024年4月16日

《中共中央办公厅 国务院办公厅关于加强生态环境分区管控的意见》明确了新时期全面加强生态环境分区管控的主要目标、重点任务和保障措施,进一步夯实了美丽中国建设的制度基础。 中国幅员辽阔,生态环境空间多样多姿,生态环境问题纷繁复杂,针对单一区域、单一要素、单一问题的管理已不能满足生态环境系统治理的要求。 实施生态环境分区管控,就是充分尊重自然规律和区域差异,基于信息共享平台建立分区域、单元化的环境管理制度,把生态保护红线、环境质量底线、资源利用上线硬约束落实到具体的空间单元之中,按照国家指导、省级统筹、市级落地的原则,因地制宜实施'一单元一策略',分单元制定生态环境准入清单,协同推进降碳、减污、扩绿、增长,从而实现差异化、精准化、高水平的生态环境治理。查看详情>>

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